## for loops in different programming languages

If you have to learn a new programming language it is most of the time quite easy. You know the structures and the way you have to think if you want to solve a problem. The first time it might be hard, but the more languages you learn the more simmilarities you'll recognize.

I also have to learn a special variant of pseudocode at the moment. It is quite hard to know what pseudocode does if it isn't unambiguously defined. I had problems with for loops for example.

For loops have some properties you simply have to define:

• Scoping: Does the loop counter still exist after the loop was executed?
• Copy or reference: Does the loop statement work with a copy or with a reference of the variables in the loop body?
• Last value of i: What is the last value of i?

## General structure

A for loop usually consists of an initialisation part, a condition and an interation step:

The structure of a for loop.

## Pythons special strutcure

Python uses a generator or lists to loop:

#!/usr/bin/python
# -*- coding: utf-8 -*-

for i in xrange(0, 10):
print("In loop: %i" % i)

print("Out of loop: %i" % i)

## Scoping

Does the loop counter still exist after the loop was executed?

• Yes: JavaScript, PHP, Python
• No: C, C++, Java

## Copy or reference

Does the loop statement work with a copy or with a reference of the variables in the loop body? Does the programming language use the same variable as in the for condition (reference) or does it use another one (copy)? You can test this if you add something to i in the body.

• Copy: Python
• Reference: C, C++, Java, JavaScript, PHP

Python iterates over a generator. This means that you can't really compare Pythons for-loop to other programming languages' for loops.

## Last value of i

What is the last value of i?

9: C, C++, Java (Inside the loop), Python (Outside of the loop) 10: JavaScript, PHP (Outside of the loop)

## foreach

Many languages provide a special for loop. This special for loop is sometimes called "foreach" as you iterate over each element in a collection (e.g. an array).

### Java

int[] array = new int[5];
array[0] = 0;
array[1] = 1;
array[2] = 2;
array[3] = 3;
array[4] = 4;

for (int item: array) {
System.out.println("Foreach: " + item);
}

### JavaScript

var array = new Array(0, 1, 2, 3, 4);

for (var value in array) {
document.write('Foreach: ' + value + '<br/>' );
}

### PHP

$array = array(0, 1, 2, 3, 4); foreach ($array as $key=>$value) {
echo "Foreach: \$value<br/>";
}


### Python

array = [0, 1, 2, 3, 4]

for value in array:
print "Foreach: %i" % value